India has rich ritual of using traditional remedies; it is regularly used by people of India and nearly about 80% of percent use in day to day life. The traditional remedies are based on Ayurveda that found dating back almost 5000 years.
Pippali (Piper Longum)
In Ayurveda medicines or remedies are termed as Rasayana; it is a formulated to serve as to vitalize or rejuvenators. Rasayana are mostly prepared by combining different spices, herbs, honey, clarified butter, etc. Among many Ayurvedic Rasayana Pippali Rasayana is one of the most popular medicines.

What is Pippali?

Pippali or so-called Long Pepper in English is a unique spice that has all qualities that of a typical spice; it tastes pungent and mildly heating not hot. Pippali is also familiar as Piper longum or Indian long pepper, botanically it is known as Piper longum linn.

The term “Pippali” is referred to the fruit of piper longum; the fruit is more beneficial and active when it is unripe. The fruits are often used as a spice and seasoning, they are used after drying it under the sun or sunshade. Besides fruits, the root of “Pippali” is also used as a part of remedy it is known as Pippali Mula in Ayurveda.

How The Pippali Herb Does Look Like?

Pippali or so-called Piper longum Linn is a thin climbing shrub that creeps and rooting below. The young shoots are soft; this plant delivers single unisexual flowers that are straight and spikes during or just after the rainy season. The male Pippali spikes are bigger, slim and are about 2.5 to 7.5 cm long, while the female Pippali spikes are about 0.25 to about 2 cm long.

• Leaves: The leaves are dark green in colour, heart or oval-shaped and are about 2 to 3 inches in length.

• Flowers: The flowers on this plant bear during rainy season, female and male flowers both are borne on different plants.

• Fruits: The fruits are ovoid in shape; with yellowish and orange colour, they mostly grow in early winters, and its drupes are about an inch in diameter.

• Spikes: Once when ripened it turns to red in colour.

Vernacular Names

  • English name : Long Pepper
  • Arabic name : Darfilfil
  • Burma name : Peikchin, peikkhyen, pezinngoun
  • Chinese name : pipo
  • French name : Poivre long
  • German name : Langer pfeffer
  • Greek name : Peperi macron
  • Italian name : Pepe lunga
  • Java name : Chabijawa
  • Mexican name : Teathancuaye
  • Nepalese name : Pipal, popal
  • Persian name : Filfildaraaz, filfildray, Maglizpipal, papal
  • Santal name (Nepal) : Ralli
  • Sindh name (Pakistan): Filfidray, Tippali
  • Sinhalese name (Sri Lanka) : Tippili
  • Spanish name : Pimentera larga

List of Indian Name Of Pippali Plant

  • Hindi name : Pipala, Pipal, Pipar, Pipli
  • Kannada Name : Hippali, Hipli, Hippaliballi, kuna
  • Telugu name : Pippallu, Pippali, Modi
  • Tamil name: Tippili, Argadi, Atti, Kalidi, Kalini, Kama tippili etc.
  • Bengali name : Pipal
  • Malayalam name : Tippali, Chapala, kana, Kattutipali, Magadhi pippali, Tippali
  • Punjabi name : Maghaun
  • Bengal name: Piplamor, Piplamul, pipli, pipul
  • Bombay name: Bangali pimpali, piplamul, pipli
  • Gujarati name : Piper, pipli, Peepli
  • Konkani name : Hipli
  • Malay name : Pitroat
  • Marathi name : Pimpli
  • Urdu name : Pipul
  • Oriya name: Baihehi kkrykola, Magodha, Pippoli.
  • Deccan name : Pipplie, pipulmul

Varieties Of Pippali

According to Charaka Sushruta and Vagbhata text, there are two varieties of Pippali. The two varieties of Pippali available in the market are in general recognised as Chhoti Pippali and Badi Pippali. Even though both varieties are used for medicinal purposes the Chhoti Pippali is more recommended by physicians due to its unique properties1.

1. Pippali (Chhoti Pippali): Long pepper – Piper longum.

2. Gaja Pippali (Badi Pippali): Piper Chaba.

According to Raja Nigantuh, there are four types of Pippali.

1. Pippali (Piper longum Linn): These types are mostly is found in places of Magadha.

2. Gaja Pippali (Piper Chaba Hunter): This type is considered as fruit of Chavika plant and generally found in Bengal, Assam and some eastern parts of India.

3. Saimhali (Piper Retrofractum Vahl): These breeds are found in Srilanka and Singapore.

4. Vana Pippali (Piper Sylvaticum Roxb. /Piper Peepuloides Roxb.) : These types are found in forests of Bengal and Assam.

Where do Pippali plants grow In India?

Pippali is found throughout the country, particularly in the hotter parts of India, especially in sub mountain tracts from central Himalayas to Assam to Khasi and Mikir hills. They are also found in evergreen forest of Western Ghats from Konkan to Kerala.

Pippali – History Of Therapeutic Uses

It has been found that Pippali have been in used since the Vedic period. This indicates that Pippali is one of the important and famous spices that have been known to Indians for a long time and its antiquity goes beyond 2000-3000 years.

More information of Pippali uses have been mentioned in “Atharva Veda” (book of knowledge or the procedures for everyday life) such as Rasayana (science of lengthening lifespan) etc.
Pippali – History Of Hindu Mythology

In Hindu mythology, it is believed that Pippali has emerged during oceanic infuriate (Samudra Manthan) along with elixir (amrit). The Jaiminiya Bramhana described that the Saint Vasitha devoured Pippali to acquire health and wealth. The text Kousika Dharmasutra (instruction to conduct rituals described in the Vedas), Pippali was suggested to neonates (an infant in the first 28 days after birth) together with other herbs.

This was a process has claimed to rejuvenate, recharge intellectual power (Medhya). Pippali is a spice that has also been specified in Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) it is a text that is mainly illustrated in reference with paediatrics (Bala of Roga) Rogi, particular Dosha, Dooshya, and various other factors.[1]

Pippali – Ayurveda

In Ayurveda Pippali describes as distinct and essential herb for life, the name itself means “to drink and digest.” Pippali is known as a “tridoshic” herb in Ayurveda, an herb that is favourable for all body-types. Pippali must be used within moderate for Pitta types due to its cooling, post-digestive effect (vipak) unlike to its close relative black pepper (maricha).

Hence Pippali can be a safe and efficient for most digestive disturbances even when Pitta (heat/fire) is developed in the body.Pippali is a spice that can be a great option of use at any time throughout the year. Due to its effective lung rejuvenation properties, it can be advantage’s herb to take throughout the spring season.

Ayurveda says that the spring season is the main time within a year for Kapha Dosha. Therefore, Kapha imbalances and results in such colds, cough, irritating allergies, congestion and pippali can be an answer to all.It is a culinary spice or herb that is generally used to treat a wide range of disorders from mental imbalances to congestion, digestive issues, colds, coughs and even for reproductive issues.

Piper Longum Medicinal Properties

  • Rasa (taste): Katu (pungent)
  • Virya (action): Mildly heating not hot.
  • Guna (quality): Laghu (strong), Teekshna (piercing)
  • Vipaka (post-digestive effect): Madhura – Undergoes sweet taste conversion after digestion
  • Veerya (action): Ushna – Hot potency. (Wet variety has cold potency)
  • Effect on Tridosha: Balances Vata and Kapha Doshas and wet variety increase Kapha Dosha.
  • Srota (channel): Circulatory, digestive, respiratory, reproductive.
  • Dhatu (tissue): Plasma, blood, fat, nerve, reproductive.

Ayuvedic Properties – Action and Uses

  1. Amanashak : It destroys toxins
  2. Bhedaniya: Purgative.
  3. Chedana: Scratches toxins from the tissues.
  4. Deepana: Enkindles the digestive fire.
  5. Hikkanigrahan: Alleviates hiccups.
  6. Jwarahara: Mitigates fevers.
  7. Krimighna: Vermifuge.
  8. Kushtaghna : Alleviates skin diseases
  9. Medohara: Reduces fat tissue.
  10. Medhya: Improves the intellect.
  11. Pachana: Digests toxins.
  12. Rasayana: Rejuvenative, specifically to plasma, blood, fat and reproductive tissues.
  13. Shwasakasahara: Benefits breathing.
  14. Shirovirechan: Clears toxins from the head.
  15. Vrishya: Aphrodisiac.

Health Benefits of Long Pepper Powder (Pippali)

1. It cure tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called as Tubercular bacilli these bacteria are present in the human throats. However, according to ayurvedic principle’s TB is resulted in due to two factors the vitiation of the tissue elements and the imbalance of the doshas.

The diet rich in cholesterol can help to treat pulmonary tuberculosis and there are scientific reasons behind it. The cholesterol is known to increase the concentration of macrophages’ ad lymphocytes of the blood, which is needed in reinforcing the immune response of the body and treating infections.

Long pepper (Pippali) is very effective in improving lung strength, because it is rejuvenative and anti aging,
Rich food sources of cholesterol are beef, liver and egg yolk etc. Vitamin B6 is also very helpful in enhancing the capability of the liver in fighting against various types of TB.

It can be derived from flesh food sources like fish, liver and chicken and in vegetarian diets you can have wheat germ, sea vegetables, nutritional yeast, banana and green beans etc. [2]

2. Helps in weight loss

Over weight is an ailment that has become the most common problems these days. Apparently, there are an unlimited number of weight-loss programs available at the market today. This is a question is. How can you decide which one is correct for you? The answer to be long pepper can help you for weight-loss programs Pippali or so-called piper longum is an aromatic pepper spice that is hot in nature.

These hot properties in spice help to clean up the toxic build-up from cell walls, tissues and arteries, this way it also helps to reduce excess body weight. The properties in the Pippali inflame the digestive fire to take in more nutrients it, moreover, purifies lungs to promote deeper breathing.

The study was performed on Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks, to develop obesity-induced dyslipidemia. Thereafter, a dose of piperine (40 mg / kg) and sibutramine (5 mg / kg) was supervised for three weeks. The results indicate that piperine possesses potential fat reducing and lipid lowering effects. It was without any change in food appetite, at a small dose of 40 mg / kg. [3]

3. Helps to cure diabetes

Today Diabetes has become the most common ailment throughout the world; it is possibly the worst disorder that can damage almost every system within the body. According to “Williams textbook of endocrinology” report published in 2013 it was estimated that over 382 million people around the world had diabetes and with 62 million diabetics,

India has one of the highest cases. Looking for a cure for diabetes, long pepper can be a best idea for the diabetic patients; it is due to its perglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects. These properties in it help to regulate the rate at which glucose is released from the blood. It also increases the Insulin production within the body; hence regular consumption of long pepper is beneficial for all diabetics.

A study was performed on antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits in alloxa-induced diabetic rats. The study was performed on the blood-glucose level, carbohydrates metabolizing enzymes and the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were analysed using specific colorimetric methods.

It was found that oral administration of dried fruits has shown significantanti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidperoxidative and antioxidant effects in diabetic rats comparable to that of the standard reference drug glibenclamide. [4]

4. It reduce bacterial infections

Bacterial Infections: There are many reasons that can cause bacterial infections most commonly it is due to eating contaminated food or drinking unsafe water. Bacterial infections can ultimately lead to stomach upset or vomiting.

Indian long pepper or so-called Pippali can be beneficial to combat these infections even infections that lead to sinusitis and nose blockage.Indian long pepper can be a best remedy for all such ailments due to its strong antibacterial properties in it.

In addition to against bacteria properties, it also has anti-amoebic activity. It has been generally found that bacterial infections often occurred in warm seasons, so this summer starts consuming Indian long pepper and be healthy. You can also use the root or stem to gain the protection.

5. Good for indigestion

Indian long pepper or so-called Pippali is a fruit from the plant that is used to cure many ailments that include for proper digestion. Besides digestion, it is also used to improve appetite and to treat heartburn, intestinal gas, stomach-ache and diarrhea.

It is a best remedy for these all ailments due to its properties called piperine in it.The Piperine contains in Pippali helps to fight certain parasites that can damage digestive system. The Piperine defends it by forming the lining of the intestines.

Indian long pepper is used individually or sometimes used in combination with other herbs to cure that particular ailment. So add long pepper powder in your food while cooking or consuming fruits on regular can keep you healthy and fit.

Pippali Churna (Long Pepper) Health Benefits

Pippali has a tremendous variety of health benefits and therefore, there is a wide range of methods for taking this herb. The simplest way to get benefits of Pippali is using as the daily regimen instead of black pepper or addition to any savoury dish.

Pippali is generally used with other elements for various health benefits below are some of the remedies that can be used in day to day life.

1.Seizures: Take Long pepper powder, Indian hemp (cannabis) and dry ginger, mix all three into equal parts and take 2 grams with honey twice at least 30 minutes before eating.

2.Coughs and Colds: Take 1/8 tsp. Pippali churna, 1/4 tsp. Ginger and 1/4 tsp. Turmeric. Mix them all in 1/4 cup of warm water add 1 tsp. of honey. Take in the morning awaking from sleep and repeat again in afternoon between 2-4 p.m.

3.Low libido (men): Take 1/8 tsp. pippali churna, 1 tsp. of ghee and 1/2 tsp. Ashwagandha powder. Mix in 1/4 cup of warm water takes 3 times daily before meals.

4.Fever and flu: Make 1 cup of ginger tea with krishna tulsi , mix 1/4 tsp of pippali churna, and 1 tsp. of honey in to it. Take 3 times daily during fever or flu.

5.Sciatica: Take ½ spoon of pippali powder, 2 spoons of castor oil and drink regularly in the morning and evening to get the cure from Sciatica.

6.Hemorrhoids: Take 1/4 tsp. pippali churna with 1/2 cup of homemade yogurt; take this daily after breakfast and dinner.

7.Delivery Pains: Take 3 grams of pippali powder, 3 grams of cassia aleta (lotus), boil this in 400 grams of water. When comes to 100 grams, filter it and mix honey or Asafoetida and give to be pregnant women.

8.Clear skin: Take 1/8 tsp. pippali churna, 2 Tbsp. of organic aloe vera juice, 1/4 tsp. turmeric and mix all in 1/2 cup with warm water, take 3 times daily during meals.

9.Low libido (women): Take 1/8 tsp. pippali churna, 1/2 tsp. Shatavari and 1 tsp. of ghee, mix them all in 1/4 cup with warm water, take 3 times daily before meals.

10.Menstrual disorders: Take 1/8 tsp. pippali churna, 2 Tbsp. of organic aloe vera juice, mix all in a 1/2 cup with warm water, take this 3 times daily before meals.

Side-Effects of Long Pepper (Pippali)

There are no known side effects of using Pippali for the health. However, if you are using drugs such as phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline, you must consult your doctor as these drugs may interact with Long Pepper. Besides this, Pippali must not be used for a very long period of time or in excess without Panchakarma and Rasayana procedure.

  • Long Pepper is hot in potency so it may cause intestinal inflammation and excess heat to the body.
  • Due to hot in potency properties, it decreases vata and kapha and increase’s pitta, so the person with pitta Prakriti must use with precautions.
  • The person feeling inflammation throughout the body should not use it.
  • Excess use of pippali can causes burning sensation, and it can cause vitiation to all Dosha
  • It should not be used continuously for long duration.

Today Piper longum is a plant of high commercial and economic importance and its use as a bioavailability enhancer can be surfed in various formulations.